Peer-reviewed research paper

Download the full peer-reviewed research paper


Mock Election VMs

We have created virtual machines that can be used to simulate a complete election in the lab, using a reproduction of the KOV2013 software base. Simply download the VMs and import them into VirtualBox, then follow the instructions to conduct an election.


Demonstration Malware

This is the source code for proof-of-concept malware that we developed in support of our analysis. It is intended as a starting point for possible future research. The code on its own cannot be used to attack a real election, and criminals capable of conducting real attacks would necessarily have the skills to develop such code independently. We are not maintaining or supporting this software.



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A security analysis of Estonia's Internet voting system by international e-voting experts.